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Exploring Psychodrama: A Comprehensive Glossary of Key Terms and Techniques

Updated: 6 days ago

Spontaneity and Creativity

Spontaneity and creativity are inseparable twins in the realm of psychodrama. Spontaneity involves responding in a novel way to familiar situations or appropriately to new circumstances. Creativity, on the other hand, is the act of bringing into existence something that did not previously exist, thereby manifesting new ideas or solutions.

Creative Genius

Central to psychodrama is the belief in the innate "expert within" each individual—an inherent capacity to find solutions to even the most challenging situations when given the opportunity. This concept underscores the belief that every person possesses untapped potential waiting to be realised.


An auxiliary in psychodrama takes on a role to support the protagonist during an enactment. This role can embody a person, object, or abstract concept, responding authentically while also tapping into their own inner experiences and insights.


A role represents the observable behaviours and expressions that individuals adopt within specific contexts. It encompasses three integral components: thoughts, emotions, and actions. Each role is context-specific and cannot be fully understood outside of its situational framework.


The process of "being" in a role in life, such as a parent or professional, involves adopting and embodying the characteristics and behaviours associated with that role. Role-taking is fundamental to psychodrama, where participants actively engage in taking on roles to explore different perspectives and experiences.

Role Play

Engaging in role play involves deliberately assuming a role within a designated setting. This technique is employed for exploration, experimentation, skill development, or personal transformation, offering participants a structured space to step into and inhabit various roles.

Surplus Reality

Surplus reality extends beyond everyday experiences, enabling participants in psychodrama to engage in therapeutic dialogues, emotional explorations, or experiential reenactments in a safe environment. This technique allows individuals to address unresolved emotions, past events, or future possibilities as if they were unfolding in the present moment.

Psychodrama Techniques


Concretisation involves transforming abstract thoughts or emotions into tangible forms within the "here-and-now" of the psychodrama session. This technique may utilize objects, sculptures, or role-play scenarios to externalize and interact with internalized aspects of oneself, facilitating deeper insight and personal growth.


In psychodrama, a double represents an auxiliary who physically or symbolically stands alongside the protagonist, amplifying and expressing aspects of the protagonist's emotions or thoughts that they may struggle to articulate. This technique provides support and enhances the protagonist's sense of presence and connection during challenging or vulnerable moments.


Maximisation involves exaggerating or amplifying physical actions, gestures, or vocal expressions to intensify the protagonist's engagement and spontaneity within the psychodrama session. This technique encourages participants to explore and expand their emotional and behavioural range, promoting deeper exploration and discovery.


Mirroring is a technique where an auxiliary mirrors the protagonist's role or actions, allowing the protagonist to observe themselves as if looking into a mirror. This process facilitates self-reflection, emotional clarity, and a deeper understanding of one's own motivations and behaviours within the psychodrama context.

Role Reversal

Role reversal entails the protagonist and an auxiliary exchanging roles within an enactment. This technique encourages empathy and perspective-taking, enabling the protagonist to step into the shoes of another person and gain insight into different viewpoints or experiences.

Scene Setting

Scene setting involves establishing the physical and emotional context for an enactment within psychodrama. This technique helps protagonists reconnect with specific memories, emotions, or situations by recreating key elements within a safe and supportive environment.


Warm-up is the preparatory phase before engaging in psychodrama activities, where participants ready themselves emotionally, mentally, and physically for the upcoming session. This phase can involve external rituals or internal processes that enhance readiness and engagement, setting the stage for deeper exploration and therapeutic work.

These definitions and explanations aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of key psychodrama concepts and techniques, emphasising their therapeutic and transformative potential within the context of personal growth and exploration.

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